Some morphological and agronomic characteristics of stems and their variability in cassava. Another method for measuring total leaf area of a cassava plant in the field is to use a quadrat frame. Diversity in central cylinder of CSR (Figure 2) for carotenoids (Figure 2A), and carbohydrate and starch iodine staining pattern (Figure 2B) indicate a large genetic [1] and are the most popular traits used for genetic breeding proposes [2, 3, 4]. Panel B—referring to total dry matter, starch, and crude fiber accumulation over time. roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds) of cassava are discussed, including growth and development (i.e. We would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Rockefeller Foundation (RF96010#25 and RF9707#26 in the search for landrace diversity); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifica e Tecnológico – CNPq (grant #480410.2001-1 for functional genomic work); Programa Nacional de Pesquisa em Biotecnologia – CENARGEN (Project No 1 060302058 for carbohydrate analysis); IAEA (contract #13188 for funds supplied to gene expression analysis); National Special acknowledgements to Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC grant #31271776), and NSFC-CGIAR International (Regional) Cooperation and Exchange Programs (grant #31361140366) for providing funds for this publication. Protein content and exploratory functionalities: Cassava storage root protein content variations predicted functionalities, patterns of distribution in source and sink organs, and post-harvest physiological deterioration studies using PROTEOMIC’s technologies. A renaissance in plant development. Carbohydrate composition, content, and genetic variation: Sugary cassava is a unusual SR phenotype as observed in Figure 2 (Panel B) for the cross session of SR stained with iodine solution, cells morphology, free sugar composition, and sucrose/glucose content in relation to normal genotypes and SR tissue age [3]. A. Leaf bud in the stem cutting from plant material forming single-tap storage root from leaf axillary bud germination (C) and callus on the stem cutting forming multiple storage roots (D). T, X, and B indicate leaf position; top, middle, and bottom leaves, respectively. From the basic secondary growth of CSR shown in Figure 4, it is possible to recognize at least 12 cell types in the storage root associated to secondary tissues including primary meristem cells, secondary meristem cells, vessels, primary xylem, secondary xylem, primary phloem, secondary phloem, parenchyma cells, sclerenchyma, and epidermal cells. The cone-shaped roots are starch storage organs covered with a papery bark and a pink to white cortex. Cassava Bud Necrosis Brown and White Leaf Spot Diseases Root Rot Diseases : Introduction : Cassava is one of the most important staple food crops in Africa. Cassava is grown overwhelmingly for its roots and is found in markets throughout the country where immigrants from tropical regions of the world shop ().Cassava was grown in Florida for the Cuban and other populations that started to arrive in the 50’s. Available from: An Overview of Their Processing and Utilization, starch accumulation rate (starch gram/root/day), fiber accumulation rate (fiber gram/root/day), EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brasilia-DF, Brazil, USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit, Fargo, ND, USA, Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural (CATAS), Hainan, China. The effect of leaf bud position on the stem cutting from a 1-year old mother plant is observed in Table 2. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Gene expression atlas for the food security crop cassava. Features of cassava storage root and its importance ranked in association with practical utilization by mankind. Isozyme analysis showed polymorphic banding pattern, while the eight RAPD primers used did not produce polymorphic. The cyanide-generating potential of cassava roots and leaves has been of considerable concern. Research efforts are directed toward genetic breeding and cultivation of cassava to improve cassava storage root starch production, nutritional values, and industrial utilization. In the case of cassava, until now, vibratome sectioning has been coupled with immunohistochemical staining to circumscribe the site of infection of cassava brown streak virus and to investigate its effect in the cassava leaf morphology (Saggaf et al., 2019). The edible roots of the plant are usually cylindrical and tapered and are white, brown or reddish in color. In the French speaking parts of Cameroon, it is disguised as Nwem – a more rustic version of this dish sometimes made with fresh corn, palm oil, with or without salt (Kwem sans sel). Incorporation of those genetic variants in a conventional breeding program, which reduced the time for obtain new commercial varieties. Types of storage root (morphologically defined), CSR physiology, tissue anatomy/histology (secondary growth), chemical composition of the edible part, biochemical features, gene expression and proteomics as secondary growth proceeds are of major importance in order to breed cassava plant for agriculture utilization. Significant differences in morphology and anatomy were found between the diploid and tetraploid plants. The cassava plant is a perennial woody shrub that grows from about one to three meters in height. It is cultivated throughout the tropical world for its tuberous roots, from which cassava flour, breads, tapioca, a laundry starch, and an alcoholic beverage are derived. The major achievements, includes the discovery of a putative mutant for the gene LYCb that leads to the accumulation of solely lycopene in the landrace CAS51 and the discovery of a mutant for the gene HYDb that leads to accumulate mainly β-carotene in the landrace CAS64. CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License, 1. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is considered a starchy root crop that provides staple food for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Plants were grown at EMBRAPA Cerrados (Latitude 15°35,769°) (Longitude 47°42,664°) and (Altitude 977 m) for a crop season up to 170 days after planting (DAP). These include direct embryonic root formation at the seed germination event (Figure 3A) to form a single-tap SR (Figure 3B), the leaf axillaries bud in stem cuttings forming a single SR (Figure 3C), and a number of nodal callus from the bases of stem cuttings forming more than one SR (Figure 3D), and buried nodes at the base of stem cuttings forming SR or induced “in vitro” plants [5]. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is a starchy root crop that provides a staple food source for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Information on yield losses due to diseases are often based on estimates but observations indicate that losses are significant in most of the cassava … As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Licensee IntechOpen. However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. 2. In domesticated cassava, CO 2 exchange rate expressed per unit mass and specific leaf area (SLA, m 2 /kg dry mass) were greater than in the wild relative, whereas leaf dry matter content (LDMC, dry mass/fresh mass) was lower in the domesticate. 2010). Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. *Address all correspondence to: luiz.castelo@embrapa.br. Variation in total protein content of storage roots (mg/gDWt) in relation to four categories of central cylinder color genotypes (A) and tissue age (B). The origin of cultivated cassava is still unclear. Developmental stages of storage root (SR) were defined based on SR diameter (cm), SR length (cm), carbohydrate, carotenoid composition and content, protein content, fiber content, and fiber/starch ration to accomplish harvest time (physiological maturation). Tylosis formation is observed only in sugary genotype. Diversity of cassava storage root in the central cylinder (edible part) related to carotenoid types and content (Panel A) and carbohydrate types as stained with iodine solution (Panel B). 452 Stamp- Anatomy and Morphology of Regeneration in Cassava in half longitudinally during the dissection process to provide two expiants. Boil 7 cassava leaves in 4 cups of water till the 2 cups remains. Luiz JCB Carvalho, Josefino F. Filho, James V. Anderson, Priscila G. Figueiredo and Songbi Chen (December 28th 2017). It produces secondary xylem cells toward the center of the root, and secondary phloem cells toward the outside. CSR generally forms up to 12–14 storage root (SR) per plant, which can originate from three sources of propagating plant materials as well as being induced in vivo and in vitro. The overall chemical composition of CSR has recently been reviewed [1]. Storage root growth and development parameters of an early (cv. Cassava bacterial blight, anthracnose, bud necrosis, leaf spots and root rot diseases affect yields of cassava in almost all producing countries in Africa. In this chapter, we review our comprehensive studies related to (CSR) morphology, storage root (SR) formation, SR physiology (growth analysis, development and maturation), anatomy/histology (secondary growth), and biochemical (carbohydrate, carotenoids, proteins, and gene expression) characteristics as secondary growth proceeds in order to understand yield of CSR. 1.4.1.1 General morphology and composition of the cassava root. 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